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Residents of the Special administrative regions , Hong Kong and Macau , are exempted from joining the military. The Joint Staff Department carries out staff and operational functions for the PLA and had major responsibility for implementing military modernisation plans.

The Joint Staff Department included functionally organised subdepartments for operations , training , intelligence , mobilisation , surveying , communications and politics, the departments for artillery , armoured units, quartermaster units and joint forces engineering units were later dissolved, with the former two forming now part of the Ground Forces, the engineering formations now split amongst the service branches and the quartermaster formations today form part of the Joint Logistics Forces.

Air Force Headquarters generally exercised control through the commanders of the five theater commands. Nuclear forces were directly subordinate to the Joint Staff Department through the Rocket Forces commander and political commissar.

Conventional main, regional, and militia units were controlled administratively by the theater commanders, but the Joint Staff Department in Beijing could assume direct operational control of any main-force unit at will.

Thus, broadly speaking, the Joint Staff Department exercises operational control of the main forces, and the theater commanders controlled as always the regional forces and, indirectly, the militia.

The post of principal intelligence official in the top leadership of the Chinese military has been taken up by a number of people of several generations, from Li Kenong in the s to Xiong Guangkai in the late s; and their public capacity has always been assistant to the deputy chief of staff or assistant to the chief of staff.

Ever since the CPC officially established the system of "theater commands" for its army in the s as a successor to the "major military regions" policy of the s, the intelligence agencies inside the Army have, after going through several major evolutions, developed into the present three major military intelligence setups:.

The Second Bureau under the headquarters and the Liaison Department under the Political Work Departments of the theater commands are only subjected to the "professional leadership" of their "counterpart" units under the Central Military Commission and are still considered the direct subordinate units of the major military region organizationally.

Those entities whose names include the word "institute", all research institutes under the charge of the Second and the Third Departments of the Joint Staff Headquarters, including other research organs inside the Army, are at least of the establishment size of the full regimental level.

Among the deputy commanders of a major Theater command in China, there is always one who is assigned to take charge of intelligence work, and the intelligence agencies under his charge are directly affiliated to the headquarters and the political department of the corresponding theater command.

Although the four aspects emphasised by Chi Haotian appeared to be defensive measures, they were in fact both defensive and offensive in nature.

The Second Department of the Joint Staff Headquarters is responsible for collecting military intelligence. Preliminary fusion is carried out by the Second Department's Analysis Bureau which mans the National Watch Center, the focal point for national-level indications and warning.

In-depth analysis is carried out by regional bureaus. Although traditionally the Second Department of the Joint Staff Department was responsible for military intelligence, it is beginning to increasingly focus on scientific and technological intelligence in the military field, following the example of Russian agencies in stepping up the work of collecting scientific and technological information.

It also supplies officers to the military intelligence sections of various military regions and group armies.

The Institute of International Relations was known in the s as the School for Foreign Language Cadres of the Central Military Commission, with the current name being used since The training of intelligence personnel is one of several activities at the institute.

The former Institute of International Relations, since been renamed the Foreign Affairs College , is under the administration of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and is not involved in secret intelligence work.

The former Central Military Commission foreign language school had foreign faculty members who were either Communist Party sympathizers or were members of foreign communist parties.

But the present Institute of International Relations does not hire foreign teachers, to avoid the danger that its students might be recognised when sent abroad as clandestine agents.

As long as they refrain from directly subversive activities, they are considered as well-behaved "military diplomats". Some bureaus under the Second Department which are responsible for espionage in different regions, of which the First Bureau is responsible for collecting information in the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau , and also in Taiwan.

Agents are dispatched by the Second Department to companies and other local corporations to gain cover. The "Autumn Orchid" intelligence group assigned to Hong Kong and Macau in the mids mostly operated in the mass media, political, industrial, commercial, and religious circles, as well as in universities and colleges.

The "Autumn Orchid" intelligence group was mainly responsible for the following three tasks:. It was further awarded another Citation for Merit, Second Class, in Its current status is not publicly known.

The Third Department of the Joint Staff Department is responsible for monitoring the telecommunications of foreign armies and producing finished intelligence based on the military information collected.

The communications stations established by the Third Department of the Joint Staff Headquarters are not subject to the jurisdiction of the provincial military district and the major theater command of where they are based.

The communications stations are entirely the agencies of the Third Department of the Joint Staff Headquarters which have no affiliations to the provincial military district and the military region of where they are based.

The personnel composition, budgets, and establishment of these communications stations are entirely under the jurisdiction of the Third Department of the General PLA General Staff Headquarters, and are not related at all with local troops.

As of the late s, SIGINT systems included several dozen ground stations, half a dozen ships, truck-mounted systems, and airborne systems.

As of the late s, the Third Department was allegedly manned by approximately 20, personnel, with most of their linguists trained at the Luoyang Institute of Foreign Languages.

Ever since the s, the Second and Third Departments of the Joint Staff Headquarters have established a number of institutions of secondary and higher learning for bringing up "special talents.

Though the distribution order they received upon graduation indicated the "Joint Staff Headquarters", many of the graduates of these schools found themselves being sent to all parts of the country, including remote and uninhabited backward mountain areas.

The reason is that the monitoring and control stations under the Third Department of the PLA General Staff Headquarters are scattered in every corner of the country.

In normal times, these two communications stations report directly to the Central Military Commission and the Joint Staff Headquarters.

Units responsible for co-ordination are the communications stations established in the garrison provinces of the military regions by the Third Department of the PLA General Staff Headquarters.

By taking direct command of military communications stations based in all parts of the country, the CPC Central Military Commission and the Joint Staff Headquarters can not only ensure a successful interception of enemy radio communications , but can also make sure that none of the wire or wireless communications and contacts among major military regions can escape the detection of these communications stations, thus effectively attaining the goal of imposing a direct supervision and control over all major military regions , all provincial military districts , and all group armies.

SIGINT stations, therefore, are scattered through the country, for domestic as well as international interception. Of the stations apparently targeting Russia, there are sites at Jilemutu and Jixi in the northeast, and at Erlian and Hami near the Mongolian border.

There is a large facility at Dayi, and, according to Ball, "numerous" small posts along the Indian border.

Other significant facilities are located near Shenyang , near Jinan and in Nanjing and Shanghai. Additional stations are in the Fujian and Guangdong military districts opposite Taiwan.

China also has ship and aircraft platforms in this area, under the South Sea Fleet headquarters at Zhanjiang immediately north of the island.

There are also truck-mounted mobile ground systems, as well as ship, aircraft, and limited satellite capability. There are at least 10 intelligence-gathering auxiliary vessels.

As of the late nineties, the Chinese did not appear to be trying to monitor the United States Pacific Command to the same extent as does Russia.

In future, this had depended, in part, on the status of Taiwan. This department is responsible for electronic countermeasures , requiring them to collect and maintain data bases on electronic signals.

It is responsible for overseeing the political education, indoctrination and discipline that is a prerequisite for advancement within the PLA.

The department conducts ideological and political work on foreign armies, explaining China's policies, and disintegrate enemy armies by dampening their morale.

It is also tasked with instigating rebellions and disloyalty within the Taiwan military and other foreign militaries.

The Liaison Office has dispatched agents to infiltrate Chinese-funded companies and private institutions in Hong Kong. Their mission is counter-espionage , monitoring their own agents, and preventing and detecting foreign intelligence services buying off Chinese personnel.

It includes highly trained soldiers, a team of commander, assistant commander, sniper, spotter, machine-gun supporter, bomber, and a pair of assault groups.

The name changes frequently. China has reportedly developed a force capable of carrying out long-range airborne operations, long-range reconnaissance, and amphibious operations.

Formed in China's Guangzhou military region and known by the nickname "Sword of Southern China", the force supposedly receives army, air force, and naval training, including flight training, and is equipped with "hundreds of high-tech devices", including global-positioning satellite systems.

All of the force's officers have completed military staff colleges, and 60 percent are said to have university degrees. Soldiers are reported to be cross-trained in various specialties, and training is supposed to encompass a range of operational environments.

It is far from clear whether this unit is considered operational by the Chinese. It is also not clear how such a force would be employed.

Among the missions mentioned were "responding to contingencies in various regions" and "cooperating with other services in attacks on islands".

According to the limited reporting, the organisation appears to be in a phase of testing and development and may constitute an experimental unit.

While no size for the force has been revealed, there have been Chinese media claims that "over 4, soldiers of the force are all-weather and versatile fighters and parachutists who can fly airplanes and drive auto vehicles and motor boats".

According to the United States Defense Department , China is developing kinetic-energy weapons, high-powered lasers, high-powered microwave weapons , particle-beam weapons , and electromagnetic pulse weapons with its increase of military fundings.

The PLA has said of reports that its modernisation is dependent on sales of advanced technology from American allies "Some people have politicized China's normal commercial cooperation with foreign countries, smearing our reputation.

According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute 's data, China became the world's third largest exporter of major arms in —14, an increase of percent from the period — China supplied major arms to 35 states in — A significant percentage just over 68 percent of Chinese exports went to three countries: Pakistan, Bangladesh and Myanmar.

China also exported major arms to 18 African states. Examples of China's increasing global presence as an arms supplier in —14 included deals with Venezuela for armoured vehicles and transport and trainer aircraft, with Algeria for three frigates, with Indonesia for the supply of hundreds of anti-ship missiles and with Nigeria for the supply of a number of unmanned combat aerial vehicles.

Following rapid advances in its arms industry, China has become less dependent on arms imports, which decreased by 42 percent between — and — Russia accounted for 61 percent of Chinese arms imports, followed by France with 16 percent and Ukraine with 13 per cent.

Helicopters formed a major part of Russian and French deliveries, with the French designs produced under licence in China.

Over the years, China has struggled to design and produce effective engines for combat and transport vehicles.

It continued to import large numbers of engines from Russia and Ukraine in —14 for indigenously designed combat, advanced trainer and transport aircraft, and for naval ships.

It also produced British-, French- and German-designed engines for combat aircraft, naval ships and armoured vehicles, mostly as part of agreements that have been in place for decades.

There is a belief in the western military doctrines that the PLA have already begun engaging countries using cyber-warfare.

Cyberwarfare has gained recognition as a valuable technique because it is an asymmetric technique that is a part of Chinese Information Operations.

As is written by two PLAGF Colonels, Qiao Liang and Wang Xiangsui, "Methods that are not characterised by the use of the force of arms, nor by the use of military power, nor even by the presence of casualties and bloodshed, are just as likely to facilitate the successful realisation of the war's goals, if not more so.

While China has long been suspected of cyber spying , on 24 May the PLA announced the existence of their cyber security squad. In February , the United States government indicted members of China's People's Liberation Army for the Equifax data breach , which involved hacking into Equifax and plundering sensitive data as part of a massive heist that also included stealing trade secrets, though the Chinese Communist Party denied these claims.

In , China decided to proceed with a nuclear weapons program. The decision was made after the United States threatened the use of nuclear weapons against China should it take action against Quemoy and Matsu , coupled with the lack of interest of the Soviet Union for using its nuclear weapons in defence of China.

After their first nuclear test China claims minimal Soviet assistance before on 16 October , China was the first state to pledge no-first-use of nuclear weapons.

In , China tested a fully functional hydrogen bomb , only 32 months after China had made its first fission device. China thus produced the shortest fission-to-fusion development known in history.

China became a major international arms exporter during the s. China acceded to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty NPT in and supported its indefinite and unconditional extension in Nuclear weapons tests by China ceased in , when it signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and agreed to seek an international ban on the production of fissile nuclear weapons material.

In , China committed to provide assistance to unsafeguarded nuclear facilities. The Zangger Committee is a group which meets to list items that should be subject to IAEA inspections if exported by countries, which have, as China has, signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty.

In September , China issued detailed nuclear export control regulations. China began implementing regulations establishing controls over nuclear-related dual-use items in China also has decided not to engage in new nuclear co-operation with Iran even under safeguards , and will complete existing co-operation, which is not of proliferation concern, within a relatively short period.

Based on significant, tangible progress with China on nuclear nonproliferation, President Clinton in took steps to bring into force the US—China Agreement on Peaceful Nuclear Cooperation.

Beijing has deployed a modest ballistic missile force, including land and sea-based intermediate-range and intercontinental ballistic missiles ICBMs.

China's nuclear program follows a doctrine of minimal deterrence , which involves having the minimum force needed to deter an aggressor from launching a first strike.

The current efforts of China appear to be aimed at maintaining a survivable nuclear force by, for example, using solid-fuelled ICBMs in silos rather than liquid-fuelled missiles.

China's published deterrence policy states that they will "uphold the principles of counterattack in self-defense and limited development of nuclear weapons", but "has never entered, and will never enter into a nuclear arms race with any country".

It goes on to describe that China will never undertake a first strike, or use nuclear weapons against a non-nuclear state or zone.

The PLA is responsible for the Chinese space program. The PLA started the development of an anti-ballistic and anti-satellite system in the s, code named Project , including ground-based lasers and anti-satellite missiles.

Only a few pictures have appeared since it was revealed in late Tests with speeds up to Mach 20 were reached around Military spending for the People's Liberation Army has grown about 10 percent annually over the last 15 years.

According to SIPRI , China became the world's third largest exporter of major arms in —, an increase of per cent from the period — A significant percentage just over 68 per cent of Chinese exports went to three countries: Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Myanmar.

Examples of China's increasing global presence as an arms supplier in — included deals with Venezuela for armoured vehicles and transport and trainer aircraft, with Algeria for three frigates, with Indonesia for the supply of hundreds of anti-ship missiles and with Nigeria for the supply of a number of unmanned combat aerial vehicles.

Following rapid advances in its domestic arms industry, China has become less dependent on arms imports, which decreased by 42 per cent between — and — Former-United States Secretary of Defense Robert Gates has urged China to be more transparent about its military capabilities and intentions.

China announced 's budget as 1. Until the mids the PLA had extensive commercial enterprise holdings in non-military areas, particularly real estate.

Almost all of these holdings were supposedly spun off in the mids. In most cases, the management of the companies remained unchanged, with the PLA officers running the companies simply retiring from the PLA to run the newly formed private holding companies.

The history of PLA involvement in commercial enterprises began in the s and s. Because of the socialist state-owned system and from a desire for military self-sufficiency, the PLA created a network of enterprises such as farms, guest houses, and factories intended to financially support its own needs.

One unintended side effect of the Deng-era economic reforms was that many of these enterprises became very profitable. For example, a military guest house intended for soldier recreation could be easily converted into a profitable hotel for civilian use.

There were two main factors which increased PLA commercial involvement in the s. One was that running profitable companies decreased the need for the state to fund the military from the government budget.

The second was that in an environment where legal rules were unclear and political connections were important, PLA influence was very useful.

By the early s party officials and high military officials were becoming increasingly alarmed at the military's commercial involvement for a number of reasons.

The military's involvement in commerce was seen to adversely affect military readiness and spread corruption. Further, there was great concern that having an independent source of funding would lead to decreased loyalty to the party.

The result of this was an effort to spin off the PLA's commercial enterprises into private companies managed by former PLA officers, and to reform military procurement from a system in which the PLA directly controls its sources of supply to a contracting system more akin to those of Western countries.

The separation of the PLA from its commercial interests was largely complete by the year It was met with very little resistance, as the spinoff was arranged in such a way that few lost out.

The firms have been enumerated under a law which mandates that a list be kept of PLA firms which "provide commercial services, manufacture, produce or export".

As such the firms, some of which are listed on stock exchanges, are liable to be sanctioned by the US and include: []. The Central Military Commission adopted the song on 25 July The lyrics of the anthem were written by Gong Mu and the music was composed by Zheng Lücheng.

The PLA's insignia consists of a roundel with a red star bearing the Chinese characters for Eight One , referring to the Nanchang uprising which began on 1 August From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Combined military forces of the People's Republic of China. Flag of the People's Liberation Army The characters are "8.

Main article: History of the People's Liberation Army. Further information: Military history of China before See also: North China Military Exercise.

See also: List of Chinese wars and battles. Main article: Theater commands of the People's Liberation Army.

Main article: People's Liberation Army Navy. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

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Main article: Cyberwarfare in the People's Republic of China. Main article: Military budget of the People's Republic of China. See also: Military-Civil Fusion.

Military Anthem of the People's Liberation Army. Introduction of the March of the PLA instrumental. China portal Communism portal War portal. The Military Balance London : Routledge.

Archived from the original on 13 May Retrieved 13 May Archived from the original on 23 October Retrieved 23 October ChinaPower Project.

Archived from the original on 13 October Retrieved 10 September Archived from the original on 22 October Retrieved 22 October Travel Reservations".

Archived from the original on 1 October Retrieved 28 October The National Interest. Archived from the original on 28 October Archived from the original on 27 May Retrieved 13 October Archived from the original on 14 December Retrieved 16 January The Hill.

Archived from the original on 26 October Retrieved 26 October The End of Globalization or a more Multipolar World? Credit Suisse AG.

Archived from the original on 15 February Retrieved 14 July The Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 27 May Archived PDF from the original on 28 April Retrieved 1 April Frederick Starri Frederick Starr ed.

Xinjiang: China's Muslim Borderland illustrated ed. Archived from the original on 16 October Retrieved 22 May Frederick Starr Archived from the original on 19 August Retrieved 28 March Archived from the original on 10 April Retrieved 2 January Archived from the original on 2 April Archived from the original on 6 March Retrieved 9 February Archived from the original on 23 February Retrieved 13 January Archived from the original on 23 March Retrieved 11 May Archived from the original on 4 November Retrieved 12 February Archived from the original on 9 March Archived from the original on 5 May Retrieved 31 March Central News Agency Republic of China.

Archived from the original on 3 February Those un-registered may not apply loan. Archived from the original on 17 June Retrieved 17 June Ministry of Defence Announced That the Conscription should be finished in high quality ".

Xinhua News Agency. Jamestown Foundation. Archived from the original on 7 December The Strategist.

Australian Strategic Policy Institute. Archived from the original on 22 December Global Security. Retrieved 9 January Cambridge University Press.

Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 20 December Asia Times. Archived from the original on 16 May Retrieved 11 June Residue that cannot be fermented can be used as a heat source to lessen the use of fossil fuel-derived hydrocarbons.

One of the major advantages of PLA is its biodegradable nature and the sustainable process by which it is made, making it the environmentally friendly choice of plastic.

Under the right circumstances, PLA can break down into its natural elements in less than a month in contrast to the centuries it will take for traditional plastics to decompose.

PLA is especially suitable in short lifespan applications such as in water bottles and food containers. The process by which PLA Is made is also more environment-friendly.

In addition to using renewable raw materials, emission of greenhouse gases during production is also lower. Because carbon dioxide is consumed during the growth of corn, the net greenhouse gas emission of the overall PLA production process can even be considered negative.

Ongoing studies on the use of alternative carbohydrate sources, such as agricultural and household wastes, even suggest that PLA production can lead to a decrease in overall solid waste.

PLA is a thermoplastic , meaning it will turn into a liquid in its melting point of to Celsius. A nifty feature of thermoplastics is that they can be heated, set upon cooling, and reheated again to form other shapes without any degradation.

In contrast, a thermosetting plastic such as epoxy or melamine can only be heated and molded once, but the resulting product can no longer be reheated as it will just burn.

This property of PLA makes it a desirable material for recycling. PLA can be broken down to its original monomers by a thermal de-polymerization process or by hydrolysis.

The resulting monomer solution can be purified and used for subsequent PLA production without any loss of quality.

Should a material made from PLA be incinerated, no toxic fumes will be generated. The ease with which PLA melts makes it a material that is easy to work with.

However, this also renders PLA unsuitable for high temperature applications such as containers made for holding hot liquids. A material made from PLA may even show signs of getting soft or deforming on a hot summer day.

PLA packaging material has been found to be more permeable to moisture and oxygen compared to other plastics, which may result in faster food spoilage.

Applications where toughness and impact resistance are critical may also be inappropriate for the more brittle PLA.

PLA can be processed via extrusion, injection molding, casting, blown film, thermoforming, and fiber spinning to form useful and versatile products.

It is typically available in the market as thin films for thermoforming, plastic pellets for injection molding, or 3D printable filaments.

A variety of colors of PLA is available. Sturdier versions of PLA have been developed by mixing different PLA isomers, resulting in higher melting temperature higher by 40 to 50 Celsius and increased mechanical strength.

This improved version has seen a wide array of applications, such as microwavable containers and engineering plastics.

Short-term applications such as food containers, water bottles, and disposable cutlery are a popular use for PLA.

A PLA film shrinks upon heating, making it a desirable material for shrink wrap. Remarks from firms that use PLA as material for food packaging indicate the preference for PLA due to increased aesthetics, better printability, good resistance to grease and oils, and reduced issues in taste and odor transfer.

PLA is widely used in the medical field due to its ability to degrade into non-toxic lactic acid. Medical implants such as screws, rods, pins and mesh have been made using PLA.

PLA can be extruded into thin fibers with significant mechanical strength. These PLA fibers have been used to manufacture casual sports apparel, upholstery material, hygiene products, and diapers.

Specifically, PLA is widely used in fused filament fabrication 3D printing , where PLA solids are encased in plaster-like mouldings to form moulds that can be filled with molten metal.

The development of cheaper and more environment friendly processes by which PLA is made should result in the decrease of its price in the market, leading to its more widespread application.

This will be further aided by a growing environmentally conscious consumer base. Issues with permeability, brittleness, and low melting temperature will have to be addressed by further research, but it is safe to say that PLA will continue to substitute petroleum-based plastics for pharmaceutical and food packaging materials in the future.

In , in terms of volume the market demand for polylactic acid was I do not think you can call PLA biodegradable. It is compostable but not biodegradable.

Staffing in military leadership was cut by about 50 percent. The PLA had also been expected to be reduced by another , by The PLA has focused on increasing mechanisation and informatization so as to be able to fight a high-intensity war.

The possibility of a militarised Japan has also been a continuous concern to the Chinese leadership since the late s.

In addition, China's military leadership has been reacting to and learning from the successes and failures of the American military during the Kosovo War , the invasion of Afghanistan , the invasion of Iraq , and the Iraqi insurgency.

All these lessons inspired China to transform the PLA from a military based on quantity to one based on quality.

Chairman Jiang Zemin officially made a " Revolution in Military Affairs " RMA part of the official national military strategy in to modernise the Chinese armed forces.

A goal of the RMA is to transform the PLA into a force capable of winning what it calls "local wars under high-tech conditions" rather than a massive, numbers-dominated ground-type war.

Chinese military planners call for short decisive campaigns, limited in both their geographic scope and their political goals.

In contrast to the past, more attention is given to reconnaissance , mobility, and deep reach. This new vision has shifted resources towards the navy and air force.

The PLA is also actively preparing for space warfare and cyber-warfare. For the past 10 to 20 years, the PLA has acquired some advanced weapons systems from Russia, including Sovremenny class destroyers , Sukhoi Su and Sukhoi Su aircraft, and Kilo-class diesel-electric submarines.

It has also started to produce several new classes of destroyers and frigates including the Type D class guided missile destroyer.

The PLA launched the new Jin class nuclear submarines on 3 December capable of launching nuclear warheads that could strike targets across the Pacific Ocean and have two aircraft carriers, one commissioned in and a second launched in Such units usually include engineers and logistical units and members of the paramilitary People's Armed Police and have been deployed as part of peacekeeping operations in Lebanon , [23] the Republic of the Congo , [24] Sudan , [25] Ivory Coast , [26] Haiti , [27] and more recently, Mali and South Sudan.

The state military system upholds the principle of the CPC's absolute leadership over the armed forces. The party and the State jointly established the CMC that carries out the task of supreme military leadership over the armed forces.

The Constitution stated that the State President directs the armed forces and made the State President the chairman of the Defense Commission.

The Defense Commission is an advisory body and does not hold any actual power over the armed forces. From that time onward, the current system of a joint system of party and state leadership of the military was established.

The Central Committee of the Communist Party leads in all military affairs. The State President directs the state military forces and the development of the military forces which is managed by the State Council.

To ensure the absolute leadership of the Communist Party over the armed forces, every level of party committee in the military forces implements the principles of democratic centralism.

In addition, division-level and higher units establish political commissars and political organisations, ensuring that the branch organisations are in line.

These systems combined the party organisation with the military organisation to achieve the party's leadership and administrative leadership.

This is seen as the key guarantee to the absolute leadership of the party over the military. In October the PLA Daily reminded readers of the Gutian Congress , which stipulated the basic principle of the Party controlling the military, and called for vigilance as "[f]oreign hostile forces preach the nationalization and de-politicization of the military, attempting to muddle our minds and drag our military out from under the Party's flag.

The leadership by the CPC is a fundamental principle of the Chinese military command system. In practice, the two central military commissions usually do not contradict each other because their membership is usually identical.

Often, the only difference in membership between the two occurs for a few months every five years, during the period between a party congress, when Party CMC membership changes, and the next ensuing National People's Congress , when the state CMC changes.

The leadership of each type of military force is under the leadership and management of the corresponding part of the Central Military Commission of the CPC Central Committee.

Forces under each military branch or force such as the subordinate forces, academies and schools, scientific research and engineering institutions and logistical support organisations are also under the leadership of the CMC.

This arrangement has been especially useful as China over the past several decades has moved increasingly towards military organisations composed of forces from more than one military branch.

In September , to meet the needs of modernisation and to improve co-ordination in the command of forces including multiple service branches and to strengthen unified command of the military, the CMC ordered the abolition of the leadership organisation of the various military branches.

Today, the PLA has air force, navy and second artillery leadership organs. In , the People's Armed Forces Department, except in some border regions, was placed under the joint leadership of the PLA and the local authorities.

Although the local party organisations paid close attention to the People's Armed Forces Department, as a result of some practical problems, the CMC decided that from 1 April , the People's Armed Forces Department would once again fall under the jurisdiction of the PLA.

The Chairman of the Central Military Commission has overall responsibility for the commission. In December , the fifth National People's Congress revised the state constitution to state that the State Central Military Commission leads all the armed forces of the state.

However, the CMC of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party remained the party organisation that directly commands the military and all the other armed forces.

However, looking at it organizationally, these two CMCs are subordinate to two different systems — the party system and the state system.

Therefore, the armed forces are under the absolute leadership of the Communist Party and are also the armed forces of the state.

This is a unique joint leadership system that reflects the origin of the PLA as the military branch of the Communist Party. It only became the national military when the People's Republic of China was established in By convention, the chairman and vice-chairman of the Central Military Commission are civilian members of the Communist Party of China, but they are not necessarily the heads of the civilian government.

Both Jiang Zemin and Deng Xiaoping retained the office of chairman even after relinquishing their other positions.

All of the other members of the CMC are uniformed active military officials. Unlike other nations, the Minister of National Defense is not the head of the military, but is usually a vice-chairman of the CMC.

In , to attempt to reduce corruption at the highest rungs of the leadership of the Chinese military, the commission banned the service of alcohol at military receptions.

On 1 January , The Central Military Commission CMC released a guideline [31] on deepening national defense and military reform, about a month after CMC Chairman Xi Jinping called for an overhaul of the military administration and command system at a key meeting.

The previous four general headquarters of the PLA were disbanded and completely reformed. They were divided into 15 functional departments instead — a significant expansion from the domain of the General Office, which is now a single department within the Central Military Commission.

Included among the 15 departments are three commissions. Until , China's territory was divided into seven military regions , but they were reorganized into five theater commands in early This reflects a change in their concept of operations from primarily ground-oriented to mobile and coordinated movement of all services.

The military reforms have also introduced a major change in the areas of responsibilities. Rather than separately commanding their own troops, service branches are now primarily responsible for administrative tasks like equipping and maintaining the troops.

It is the theater commands now that have the command authority. This should, in theory, facilitate the implementation of joint operations across all service branches.

Coordination with civilian national security groups such as the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is achieved primarily by the leading groups of the Communist Party of China.

Particularly important are the leading groups on foreign affairs, which include those dealing with Taiwan. Following the , troop reduction announced in , the total strength of the PLA has been reduced from 2.

Further reforms will see an additional , personnel reduction from its current strength of 2. The reductions will come mainly from non-combat ground forces, which will allow more funds to be diverted to naval, air, and strategic missile forces.

This shows China's shift from ground force prioritisation to emphasising air and naval power with high-tech equipment for offensive roles over disputed coastal territories.

As well as learning from the success of the US military in network-centric warfare , joint operations, C4ISR , and hi-tech weaponry , the PLA is also studying unconventional tactics that could be used to exploit the vulnerabilities of a more technologically advanced enemy.

This has been reflected in the two parallel guidelines for the PLA ground forces development. While speeding up the process of introducing new technology into the force and retiring the older equipment, the PLA has also placed an emphasis on asymmetric warfare , including exploring new methods of using existing equipment to defeat a technologically superior enemy.

In addition to the four main service branches, the PLA is supported by two paramilitary organisations : the People's Armed Police including the China Coast Guard and the Militia including the maritime militia.

In times of crisis, the PLA Ground Force will be reinforced by numerous reserve and paramilitary units. In recent years two amphibious mechanised divisions were also established in Nanjing and Guangzhou MR.

At least 40 percent of PLA divisions and brigades are now mechanised or armoured, almost double the percentage before While much of the PLA Ground Force was being reduced over the past few years, technology-intensive elements such as special operations forces SOF , army aviation , surface-to-air missiles SAMs , and electronic warfare units have all been rapidly expanded.

The latest operational doctrine of the PLA ground forces highlights the importance of information technology, electronic and information warfare , and long-range precision strikes in future warfare.

On 1 January , as part of military reforms, China created for the first time a separate headquarters for the ground forces. Previously, the People's Liberation Army's Four General Departments served as the de facto army headquarters, functioning together as the equivalent of a joint staff, to which the navy, air force and the newly renamed Rocket Force would report.

The Political Commissar is Liu Lei. Since then it has undergone rapid modernisation. Each fleet consists of a number of surface ship , submarine , naval air force , coastal defence , and marine units.

The navy includes a 15, strong Marine Corps organised into two brigades , a 26, strong Naval Aviation Force operating several hundred attack helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft.

In November , then Party General Secretary Hu Jintao reported to the Chinese Communist Party 18th National Congress his desire to "enhance our capacity for exploiting marine resource and build China into a strong maritime power".

J-XX and XXJ are names applied by Western intelligence agencies to describe programs by the People's Republic of China to develop one or more fifth-generation fighter aircraft.

China's total nuclear arsenal size is estimated to be between and thermo nuclear weapons. The PLARF has approximately , personnel and six ballistic missile divisions missile corps bases.

The six divisions are independently deployed in different theater commands and have a total of 15 to 20 missile brigades.

It as strength of , Additionally, commentators speculate that it will include high-tech operations forces such as space, cyberspace and electronic warfare operations units, independent of other branches of the military.

Technically, military service with the PLA is obligatory for all Chinese citizens. In practice, mandatory military service has not been implemented since as the People's Liberation Army has been able to recruit sufficient numbers voluntarily.

In practice, registering does not mean that the person doing so must join the People's Liberation Army. Article 55 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China prescribes conscription by stating: "It is a sacred duty of every citizen of the People's Republic of China to defend his or her motherland and resist invasion.

It is an honoured obligation of the citizens of the People's Republic of China to perform military service and to join the militia forces.

This law has not been amended since it came into effect. Technically, those 18—22 years of age enter selective compulsory military service, with a month service obligation.

In reality, numbers of registering personals are enough to support all military posts in China, creating so-called "volunteer conscription".

Residents of the Special administrative regions , Hong Kong and Macau , are exempted from joining the military.

The Joint Staff Department carries out staff and operational functions for the PLA and had major responsibility for implementing military modernisation plans.

The Joint Staff Department included functionally organised subdepartments for operations , training , intelligence , mobilisation , surveying , communications and politics, the departments for artillery , armoured units, quartermaster units and joint forces engineering units were later dissolved, with the former two forming now part of the Ground Forces, the engineering formations now split amongst the service branches and the quartermaster formations today form part of the Joint Logistics Forces.

Air Force Headquarters generally exercised control through the commanders of the five theater commands. Nuclear forces were directly subordinate to the Joint Staff Department through the Rocket Forces commander and political commissar.

Conventional main, regional, and militia units were controlled administratively by the theater commanders, but the Joint Staff Department in Beijing could assume direct operational control of any main-force unit at will.

Thus, broadly speaking, the Joint Staff Department exercises operational control of the main forces, and the theater commanders controlled as always the regional forces and, indirectly, the militia.

The post of principal intelligence official in the top leadership of the Chinese military has been taken up by a number of people of several generations, from Li Kenong in the s to Xiong Guangkai in the late s; and their public capacity has always been assistant to the deputy chief of staff or assistant to the chief of staff.

Ever since the CPC officially established the system of "theater commands" for its army in the s as a successor to the "major military regions" policy of the s, the intelligence agencies inside the Army have, after going through several major evolutions, developed into the present three major military intelligence setups:.

The Second Bureau under the headquarters and the Liaison Department under the Political Work Departments of the theater commands are only subjected to the "professional leadership" of their "counterpart" units under the Central Military Commission and are still considered the direct subordinate units of the major military region organizationally.

Those entities whose names include the word "institute", all research institutes under the charge of the Second and the Third Departments of the Joint Staff Headquarters, including other research organs inside the Army, are at least of the establishment size of the full regimental level.

Among the deputy commanders of a major Theater command in China, there is always one who is assigned to take charge of intelligence work, and the intelligence agencies under his charge are directly affiliated to the headquarters and the political department of the corresponding theater command.

Although the four aspects emphasised by Chi Haotian appeared to be defensive measures, they were in fact both defensive and offensive in nature.

The Second Department of the Joint Staff Headquarters is responsible for collecting military intelligence. Preliminary fusion is carried out by the Second Department's Analysis Bureau which mans the National Watch Center, the focal point for national-level indications and warning.

In-depth analysis is carried out by regional bureaus. Although traditionally the Second Department of the Joint Staff Department was responsible for military intelligence, it is beginning to increasingly focus on scientific and technological intelligence in the military field, following the example of Russian agencies in stepping up the work of collecting scientific and technological information.

It also supplies officers to the military intelligence sections of various military regions and group armies. The Institute of International Relations was known in the s as the School for Foreign Language Cadres of the Central Military Commission, with the current name being used since The training of intelligence personnel is one of several activities at the institute.

The former Institute of International Relations, since been renamed the Foreign Affairs College , is under the administration of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and is not involved in secret intelligence work.

The former Central Military Commission foreign language school had foreign faculty members who were either Communist Party sympathizers or were members of foreign communist parties.

But the present Institute of International Relations does not hire foreign teachers, to avoid the danger that its students might be recognised when sent abroad as clandestine agents.

As long as they refrain from directly subversive activities, they are considered as well-behaved "military diplomats". Some bureaus under the Second Department which are responsible for espionage in different regions, of which the First Bureau is responsible for collecting information in the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau , and also in Taiwan.

Agents are dispatched by the Second Department to companies and other local corporations to gain cover.

The "Autumn Orchid" intelligence group assigned to Hong Kong and Macau in the mids mostly operated in the mass media, political, industrial, commercial, and religious circles, as well as in universities and colleges.

The "Autumn Orchid" intelligence group was mainly responsible for the following three tasks:. It was further awarded another Citation for Merit, Second Class, in Its current status is not publicly known.

The Third Department of the Joint Staff Department is responsible for monitoring the telecommunications of foreign armies and producing finished intelligence based on the military information collected.

The communications stations established by the Third Department of the Joint Staff Headquarters are not subject to the jurisdiction of the provincial military district and the major theater command of where they are based.

The communications stations are entirely the agencies of the Third Department of the Joint Staff Headquarters which have no affiliations to the provincial military district and the military region of where they are based.

The personnel composition, budgets, and establishment of these communications stations are entirely under the jurisdiction of the Third Department of the General PLA General Staff Headquarters, and are not related at all with local troops.

As of the late s, SIGINT systems included several dozen ground stations, half a dozen ships, truck-mounted systems, and airborne systems.

As of the late s, the Third Department was allegedly manned by approximately 20, personnel, with most of their linguists trained at the Luoyang Institute of Foreign Languages.

Ever since the s, the Second and Third Departments of the Joint Staff Headquarters have established a number of institutions of secondary and higher learning for bringing up "special talents.

Though the distribution order they received upon graduation indicated the "Joint Staff Headquarters", many of the graduates of these schools found themselves being sent to all parts of the country, including remote and uninhabited backward mountain areas.

The reason is that the monitoring and control stations under the Third Department of the PLA General Staff Headquarters are scattered in every corner of the country.

In normal times, these two communications stations report directly to the Central Military Commission and the Joint Staff Headquarters.

Units responsible for co-ordination are the communications stations established in the garrison provinces of the military regions by the Third Department of the PLA General Staff Headquarters.

By taking direct command of military communications stations based in all parts of the country, the CPC Central Military Commission and the Joint Staff Headquarters can not only ensure a successful interception of enemy radio communications , but can also make sure that none of the wire or wireless communications and contacts among major military regions can escape the detection of these communications stations, thus effectively attaining the goal of imposing a direct supervision and control over all major military regions , all provincial military districts , and all group armies.

SIGINT stations, therefore, are scattered through the country, for domestic as well as international interception. Of the stations apparently targeting Russia, there are sites at Jilemutu and Jixi in the northeast, and at Erlian and Hami near the Mongolian border.

There is a large facility at Dayi, and, according to Ball, "numerous" small posts along the Indian border.

Other significant facilities are located near Shenyang , near Jinan and in Nanjing and Shanghai. Additional stations are in the Fujian and Guangdong military districts opposite Taiwan.

China also has ship and aircraft platforms in this area, under the South Sea Fleet headquarters at Zhanjiang immediately north of the island.

There are also truck-mounted mobile ground systems, as well as ship, aircraft, and limited satellite capability.

There are at least 10 intelligence-gathering auxiliary vessels. As of the late nineties, the Chinese did not appear to be trying to monitor the United States Pacific Command to the same extent as does Russia.

In future, this had depended, in part, on the status of Taiwan. This department is responsible for electronic countermeasures , requiring them to collect and maintain data bases on electronic signals.

It is responsible for overseeing the political education, indoctrination and discipline that is a prerequisite for advancement within the PLA.

The department conducts ideological and political work on foreign armies, explaining China's policies, and disintegrate enemy armies by dampening their morale.

It is also tasked with instigating rebellions and disloyalty within the Taiwan military and other foreign militaries. The Liaison Office has dispatched agents to infiltrate Chinese-funded companies and private institutions in Hong Kong.

Polylactic acid or polyactide PLA is a biodegradable and bioactive polyester made up of lactic acid building blocks.

It was first discovered in by Wallace Carothers by heating lactic acid under vacuum while removing condensed water.

During the early times, only low-density PLA was produced. By using lactide as a raw material and through the process of ring-opening polymerization, a high-density version of PLA was finally developed.

Early applications of high-density PLA were mostly limited to biomedical areas due to its ability to be safely absorbed biologically.

Over the past decades, the development of economical production methods and a rising environmental consciousness in consumers lead to the widespread use of PLA as packaging material for consumer goods.

PLA is manufactured from renewable sources and is compostable, addressing problems in solid waste disposal and lessening our dependence on petroleum-based raw materials.

It is currently the second most produced and consumed bioplastic in the world in terms of volume. PLA is a polyester polymer containing the ester group made with two possible monomers or building blocks: lactic acid, and lactide.

Lactic acid can be produced by the bacterial fermentation of a carbohydrate source under controlled conditions. In the industrial scale production of lactic acid, the carbohydrate source of choice can be corn starch, cassava roots, or sugarcane, making the process sustainable and renewable.

Production of PLA by the direct condensation of lactic acid is possible. However, this process usually results in the less-desired low-density PLA.

To produce high-density PLA, the lactic acid is heated in the presence of an acid catalyst to form cyclic lactide.

In the presence of metal catalysts, lactide undergoes a ring-opening polymerization process to form high-density PLA. Research is ongoing to come up with even more eco-friendly and cheaper methods of producing PLA.

In addition the agricultural produce itself, crop residue such as stems, straw, husks, and leaves, can be processed and used as alternative carbohydrate sources.

Residue that cannot be fermented can be used as a heat source to lessen the use of fossil fuel-derived hydrocarbons.

One of the major advantages of PLA is its biodegradable nature and the sustainable process by which it is made, making it the environmentally friendly choice of plastic.

Under the right circumstances, PLA can break down into its natural elements in less than a month in contrast to the centuries it will take for traditional plastics to decompose.

PLA is especially suitable in short lifespan applications such as in water bottles and food containers. The process by which PLA Is made is also more environment-friendly.

In addition to using renewable raw materials, emission of greenhouse gases during production is also lower. Because carbon dioxide is consumed during the growth of corn, the net greenhouse gas emission of the overall PLA production process can even be considered negative.

Ongoing studies on the use of alternative carbohydrate sources, such as agricultural and household wastes, even suggest that PLA production can lead to a decrease in overall solid waste.

PLA is a thermoplastic , meaning it will turn into a liquid in its melting point of to Celsius. Fiore; Feng Jing; Victor G.

Young Jr. Cramer; Marc A. Hillmyer Polymer Chemistry. Annealing condition effects on properties and morphologies of poly l-lactide ". Macromolecular Materials and Engineering.

Colloid and Polymer Science. Polymers for Advanced Technologies. Archived from the original on 1 May Retrieved 11 April Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition.

Virtual and Physical Prototyping. Materials Today. Journal of Applied Polymer Science. Reprap Wiki. Archived from the original on 16 July MakerBot Industries.

Archived from the original on 23 April Retrieved 30 November Selke; Hideto Tsuji, eds. Harvey, J. Paul; Games, Robert F.

Archived from the original on 6 June Bibcode : Nanos December Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. Global Challenges. ACS Catalysis. Calabia; Charles U.

Ugwu; Seiichi Aiba September International Journal of Molecular Sciences. Thermoplastic Thermosetting polymer Duroplast Corrugated plastic Polymeric foam High performance plastics.

Polymer additive Colorants Plasticizer Stabilizer for polymers Biodegradable additives Filler materials. Plastics industry Commodity plastics Engineering plastics High-performance plastics Plastic film Plastic bottle Plastic bag Plastic shopping bag Plastic cutlery Blister pack Foam food container Construction Geosynthetics Category:Plastics applications.

Health issues of plastics and polyhalogenated compounds PHCs. Plastic pollution Rubber pollution Great Pacific garbage patch Persistent organic pollutant Dioxins List of environmental health hazards.

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